Two-Factor Authentication: All techniques used to strengthen typical Username/password login session (e.g. single factor authentication) by adding a second security challenge.


3FF (3rd Form Factor) is a very small SIM card, also known as micro-SIM, for use in small mobile device.


(Third Generation) The broadband telecommunications systems that combine high speed voice, data and multimedia.


3GPP (3G Partnership Project) is an industry group that aims to produce specifications for a 3G system based on GSM Networks.


4FF (4th Form Factor) is a very small SIM card, also known as nano-SIM, for use in small mobile device.


4G (fourth generation) is a comprehensive, secure all-IP based mobile broadband solution to smartphones, tablets, laptop computers, wireless modems and other mobile devices.

Access Control

Techniques and solutions to grant or deny access to a given user for a given digital service. Consumers are very familiar with Username/Password as a basic access control technique for popular web services such as web mails or eMerchants web sites. Security sensitive services such as Payment or eGov are often deploying more robust access control techniques, usually relying on Secure Elements, Smart Cards being one example.


Authentication and Key Agreement. The process by which the Authentication Centre (AuC) and UE exchange information by which they can each verify a secret key held by the other, and then calculate keys to be used for ciphering and integrity protection of data transmitted between the UE and the network. See 3GPP TS33.102 Section 6.3 and TS33.401 Section 6.1.


Access Point Name. Identifies a Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) or Packet Data Network GateWay (P-GW). It includes an APN network identifier which defines the Packet Data Network (PDN) to which the UE requests connectivity, and may also include an APN operator identifier which defines in which Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) the P-GW or GGSN is located. See 3GPP TS23.003 Sections 9 and

Automatic Border Control
The use of an Automated gate in lieu of a one-to-one meeting between the Traveller and an Immigration Officer.The objective of deploying Automatic Border Control is to automate the process for a large percentage of the Travellers' flow and to allow the Immigration Officers personnel to perform face-to-face control on identified targets.

Broadcast Control CHannel. In LTE, it represents the logical channel carrying broadcast system information. See 3GPP TS36.321.

Broadcast CHannel. In LTE, the transport channel carrying broadcast system information except that which is contained in the Master Information Block (MIB). See 3GPP TS36.321.

Bearer Control Mode. BCM can indicate mobile station only or mobile station / network. When the BCM is mobile station only, the mobile station requests any additional Packet Data Protocol (PDP) contexts for the PDP Address / Access Point Name (APN) pair. In the case of mobile station/network, both the mobile station and the Packet Data Network GateWay (P-GW) or Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) may request additional PDP contexts. See 3GPP TS29.060 Section 7.7.83.


Bit Error Rate. A measure of received signal quality, the proportion of received bits which is decoded erroneously.

Big Data

A collection of data set so large and complex that they are difficult to process with traditional applications.


Human attributes that are unique to one given individual and can be digitalize to then be compared with a stored reference. The use of biometrics data such as finger prints can be used for security services such as access control, data encryption or digital signature The challenge of Biometry is to enroll then securely store the reference data for each individual. Smart Card solutions offer match-on-card applications, removing the need for an online verification via a central database.


A short range wireless technology that simplifies communication and synchronization between the internet, devices and other computers.


Broadcast-Multicast Service Centre. The interface between external broad- cast/multicast content providers and the core network. See 3GPP TS23.246 Section 5.1.

Border Control

The act of controlling Travellers identities and Visas when entering a given country (Airports, Sea-ports or roads)

Bot (Internet bot)

A type of computer program designed to do automated tasks.

Bandwidth Part. A part of the total downlink system bandwidth, which is further subdivided into a number of sub-bands. It is applicable to periodic ‘UE- selected sub-band’ Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) reporting on the Physical Uplink Control CHannel (PUCCH). The UE selects one sub-band from the BP and the corresponding CQI value is reported. See 3GPP TS36.213 Section 7.2.2.

Binary Phase Shift Keying modulation. A modulation scheme conveying one bit per symbol, whereby the values of the bit are represented by opposite phases of the carrier.


Base Station. The entity in a radio access network responsible for radio trans- mission and reception in one or more cells to and from the UE. In LTE the BS is known as the eNodeB.


Common Access Card: a US Department of Defense smart card issued as standard physical and network identification for military and other personnel.

Card Admin

Gemalto Telecom Card Admin tool is a tool to edit SIM & UICC cards. Card Admin provides all the necessary fundamentals to FULLY (Proprietary files, Proprietary commands etc.) administrate any 2G, 3G, LTE and CDMA card (Gemalto & Competition).

Cell Broadcast Centre. The part of the Core Network (CN) which manages Cell Broadcast Service (CBS) messages. See 3GPP TS23.002 Section 4a.5.1.
Cell Broadcast Service. A service analogous to Teletex, which broadcasts unacknowledged messages to all mobile terminals within a particular region. See 3GPP TS23.041.

Code Division Multiple Access. A wireless communications technology that uses the spread spectrum communication to provide increased bandwidth.


Cell Global Identification. The globally unique identity of a cell in GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) or CDMA2000.


Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. Used by the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) to validate the identity of users. See IETF RFC1994,

Cell IDentifier. In LTE, an identifier of a particular cell, either a Physical CID or a Global CID. Up to 504 Physical CIDs are available.
Cloud Computing

Computing by using servers, storage and applications that are accessed via the internet. Cloud Computing is the architecture of choice for popular applications such as Web Mail, Social Networks, collaborative applications such as Microsoft office 365 or Google Docs. The promesses of Cloud Computing are no data losses, no backup needed, no software license updates needed. Applications are executed from a web browser or an apps. The application itself and the user data are hosted in a Data Center. Cloud Computing is often seen as the alternative to client software where a license of a given software is installed and executed on the user's device.

Core Network. The part of the 3GPP system which is independent of the connection technology (e.g. the Radio Access Technology (RAT)) of the terminals. The terminals connect to the core network via the access network (which is RAT-specific).

A card that communicates by means of a radio frequency signal, eliminating the need for physical contact with a reader. Contactless communications includes several technologies aiming at performing short range data transfer between two communicating devices. Operational ranges can vary from 2cm to 10 to 15 meters. Contactless Cards used for Payment or Transport use very short range technolgy. Such card's silicon chip are powered by the proximity of the reader to establish the contactless communication in a secure manner.


Cyclic Redundancy Check. An error detecting code appended to a block of data to be transmitted. The value of the CRC is calculated only from the block of data itself. The length of the CRC determines the number of errors which can be detected in the block of data on reception. A CRC is not able to correct errors or determine which bits are erroneous.


Closed Subscriber Group. A set of subscribers who are permitted to access a particular cell to which access is restricted. See 3GPP TS25.367 and TS36.304.

Customer Relationship Management

A set of tools and techniques using data to enhance sales forecast, supply strategy, pricing strategy and all aspects of products&services strategy. CRM is foreseen has a key application of Big Data, where large amounts of past data can really enhance current and future business steering and decision making.


Dynamic Data Authentication. Authentication technology that allows banks to approce transactions at the terminal in a highly secure way.


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A protocol used to allocate Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and other configuration parameters to devices in an IP network. See IETF RFC1531,

Digital identity

Humans can own one or several Digital Identiti(es) - also called avatars - to be used to access various digital services For secure services, Digital Identities must be issued by a Certificate Authority (CA) capable to establish a link between the actual user and his/her digital Identities. There is no limit to how many Digital Identities any given user may have.

Digital signature

An electronic signature created using a public-key algorithm that can be used by the recipient to authenticate the identity of the sender.


DownLink. The radio link in the direction from the base station to the mobile terminal.


Device Management: Management of mobile phone configuration, updates and other managed objects of mobile devices over the entire life-cycle as defined by OMA DM. DM is also used generically to describe all methods and activities associated with mobile device management.

DNS Cache poisoning

A technique that tricks a Domain Name Server (DNS server) into believing it has received authentic information when in reality it has not.


Any small piece of hardware that plugs into a computer. Most popular form-factor are USB keys or Smart Cards that can get inserted into card readers. Innovative device using optical reader have also been launched onto the market.

Data Radio Bearer. A radio bearer which carriers user data as opposed to control plane signalling.

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access. The LTE radio access technology.

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network. Consists of eNodeBs, providing the User-plane (Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP), Radio Link Control (RLC), Medium Access Control (MAC) and PHYsical (PHY) layers) and Control-plane (Radio Resource Control (RRC)) protocol terminations towards the UE. The eNodeBs can be interconnected with each other by means of the X2 interface. The eNodeBs are connected by means of the S1 interface to the Evolved Packet Core (EPC). See 3GPP TS23.002 Section

Extended Access Control. A mechanism enhancing the security of ePassports whereby only authorized inspection systems can read biometric data.


Accessing banking services via the internet


Buying and selling goods via the internet.


A pre-3G digital mobile phone technology allowing improved data transmission rates.

Evolved Packet System Encryption Algorithm. Used for ciphering, this may be either Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), SNOW 3G or null. All algorithms use a 128-bit input key. See 3GPP TS33.401.
The use of digital technologies (often via the internet) to provide Government services. Second generation eGov 2.0 programs aim to increase efficiency, lower costs and reduce.
Evolved Packet System Integrity Algorithm. Used for integrity protection of Radio Resource Control (RRC) and Non-Access Stratum (NAS) signalling, this may be either Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) or SNOW 3G. Both algorithms use a 128-bit input key. See 3GPP TS33.401.
Personal identification using a variety of devices secured by microprocessors, biometrics and other means.
ElectroMagnetic Compatibility. EMC between two pieces of equipment im- plies that each is not unduly affected by electromagnetic radiation emitted by the other. Electromagnetic compatibility may be achieved by control of emissions, or control of susceptibility to emissions, or both.
Evolved Packet System Connection Management. A Non-Access Stratum (NAS) state which reflects whether a UE is registered with the Mobile Management Entity (MME) – either ‘registered’ or ‘deregistered’. See 3GPP TS24.301 Section 5.
The industry standard for international debit/credit cards established by Europay, MasterCard and Visa.
evolved NodeB. The base station in LTE systems. Each eNodeB serves one or more E-UTRAN cells. 
An "electronic" passport with high security printing, an inlay including an antenna and a microprocessor, and other security features.
Evolved Packet Core. The Core Network (CN) in the LTE / System Architecture Evolution (SAE) system. The EPC is responsible for the overall control of the UE and establishment of the bearers. The main logical nodes of the EPC are the Packet Data Network GateWay (P-GW), Serving-GateWay (S-GW) and Mobility Management Entity (MME).
A small portable device that contains "electronic money" and is generally used for low-value transactions.
A diverse family of computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs).
Electronic systems for issuing, checking and paying for tickets predominantly for public transport.
European Telecommunications Standards Institute: the EU organization in charge of defining European telecommunications standards.
European Telecommunications Standards Institute. The European Standards Development Organisation (SDO) in 3GPP. See 
Equipment Under Test. Typically refers to equipment undergoing conformance testing.

A femtocell is a small, low-power cellular base station, typically designed for use in a home or small business.

FIPS 201

Federal Information Processing Standard. A US federal government standard that specifies Personal Identity Verification requirements for employees and contractors.


Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access. The brand name for world's first W-CDMA 3G services offered by NTT DoCoMo, the Japanese operator.

Fully Qualified Domain Name. An FQDN may be included in the identity of a Packet Data Network GateWay (PDN-GW). It is used to derive the Internet Protocol (IP) address of the PDN-GW by means of the Domain Name Service (DNS) function, taking into account the protocol type on the S5/S8 interfaces. See 3GPP TS23.003 Section 19.4.2. 
Firmware Update Management Object, is an Open Mobile Alliance specification for updating the firmware of mobile devices over the air. FUMO allows mobile operators to update mobile devices across network infrastructure without requiring consumers or network engineers to initiate upgrades through direct contact. It enables operators and device manufacturers to perform updates over-the-air ranging from the simple ones (e.g.:security patch) to the most complex (e.g.: important parts of the operating system).
General Packet Radio Service. A mobile data service extension to the GSM system. It is often described as “2.5G”. See 3GPP TS43.064 and TS23.060.

Global System for Mobile Communications. A European standard for digital cellular phones that has now been widely adopted throughout the world.


GSM Association. The global association for Mobile phone operators.

Home Environment. The HE of a subscriber is responsible for the overall pro- vision and control of the personal service environment to the subscriber. 
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: the US act that protects health insurance coverage for workers and their families when they change or lose their jobs
Home Location Register. The HLR can be considered to be a subset of the Home Subscriber Server (HSS) that supports the Packet Switched (PS) domain entities such as the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN), Mobile Management Entity (MME) and Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). It also supports the Circuit Switched (CS) domain entities such as the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC). It is needed to enable subscriber access to services and to support roaming to legacy GSM/UMTS networks. See 3GPP TS23.002 Section
Home eNodeB IDentifier. A free-text name to identify a Home NodeB or Home eNodeB, to aid the user in selecting the correct Closed Subscriber Group (CSG) cell when making a manual selection. See 3GPP TS22.011 Section 8.4.2 and 36.331 Section 6.3.1. 
HandOver. HO is a procedure by which a mobile terminal changes serving cells (within the same frequency or on different frequencies or even on different Radio Access Technologies (RAT)). See 3GPP TS36.133.
Home Public Land Mobile Network. A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) where the Mobile Country Code (MCC) and Mobile Network Code (MNC) of the PLMN identity are the same as the MCC and MNC of the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) or the defined Equivalent HPLMN (EHPLMN). See 3GPP TS36.304 Section 3.1.
High-Speed Downlink Packet Access. A feature introduced in Release 5 of UMTS to improve downlink packet data transmission.
High-Speed Packet Access. The marketing term encompassing both HSDPA and HSUPA enhancements to Wideband Code Division Multiple Access, sometimes considered to be “3.5G”.
High-Speed Packet Access Evolution. Corresponds to further enhancements to HSDPA and HSUPA beyond Release 7.

Homeland Security Presidential Directive. Orders all US Federal Agencies to issue secure and reliable forms of identification to employees and contractors, with a recommendation in favor of smart card technology.

Home Subscriber Server. The entity containing the subscription-related in- formation to support the network entities handling calls/sessions. See 3GPP TS23.002 Section
High-Speed Uplink Packet Access. A feature introduced in Release 6 of UMTS to improve uplink packet data transmission.
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. A client-server communication protocol developed for World Wide Web. See IETF RFC2616,
 Identity and Access Management

International Civil Aviation Organization. The United Nations agency which standardizes machine-readable and biometric passports worldwide.

Internet Engineering Task Force. A large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. See
Using text on a mobile handset to communicate in real time
International Mobile Equipment Identity. A unique number which is allocated to each individual mobile station. It is implemented by the mobile station manufacturer. See 3GPP TS 22.016.
International Mobile Equipment Identity Software Version number. This field allows the mobile equipment manufacturer to identify different software versions of a given mobile. The software version number is a separate field from the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI), although it is associated with the IMEI. When the network requests the IMEI from the mobile subscriber, it may also request that the software version number is sent to the network. See 3GPP TS22.016.
Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem. An architectural framework for delivering Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia services via UTRAN and E- UTRAN. See 3GPP TS23.228 and TS23.406.
International Mobile Subscriber Identity. A unique number associated with each mobile phone user. It is stored in the SIM inside the phone and is sent by the phone to the network. It is primarily intended for obtaining information on the use of the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) by subscribers. It is also used for other functions such as to compute the Paging Occasions (PO) in LTE. See 3GPP TS22.016 and TS23.003.
International Mobile Telecommunications. The name given to families of standards defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to satisfy a certain set of requirements, for example in terms of data rate and mobility.Examples are IMT-2000, which encompasses third generation (3G) wireless communication systems, and IMT-Advanced which is designed to encompass the next major generation of systems.

Internet Protocol. A protocol for communicating data accross a network

International Organization for Standardization: an international body that produces the worldwide industrial and commercial "ISO" standards.
International Telecommunication Union. The leading United Nations agency for information and communication technology issues, and the global focal point for governments and the private sector in developing networks and services. See
International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication sector. The primary role of the Radiocommunication sector of the ITU is to manage the radio spectrum to ensure interference-free operation between different radio services such as fixed, mobile, broadcast, amateur, emergency and global positioning systems. This is effected through radio regulations and regional agreements, as well as the establishment of recommendations to assure the necessary performance and quality in operating radio communication systems. The ITU-R also seeks to conserve spectrum and ensure flexibility for future expansion and new technological developments. See
A network oriented programming language invented by Sun Microsystems and specificallt designed so that programs can be safely downloaded to remote devices.
Key logging

A means of capturing a user's keystrokes on a computer keyboard, sometimes for malicious purposes.

Location Area Code. The LAC is part of the Location Area Identity (LAI). The LAC identifies a Location Area (LA) within a Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). It has a fixed length of 2 octets and is one of the parameters an LTE UE is requested to read when it detects UTRAN cells in the neighbourhood. See 3GPP TS23.003 Section 4.1.
Location Area Identity. The LAI is composed of the Mobile Country Code (MCC), the Mobile Network Code (MNC) and the Location Area Code (LAC). See 3GPP TS23.003 Section 4.1.
Lock And Wipe Management Object. It is an Open Mobile Alliance specification for locking handsets in case they are lost or stolen or for wiping the handsets’ memory. The handset wipe removes all personal data stored either on the handset memory or on the inserted memory card. As a result, the handset is then totally blank, without any chance to retrieve the data.
Location Registration. The process the UE undertakes to register its presence in a registration area when in Idle mode. As a result of LR, the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) selected by the UE becomes the Registered PLMN. This can be done regularly or when entering a new tracking area. See 3GPP TS36.304 Section 4.1.

Long Term Evolution. The standard in advanced mobile network technology, often referred to as 4G.

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity. A temporary identity used to pre- serve subscriber confidentiality. It identifies a user between the UE and the Mobility Management Entity (MME). The relationship between M-TMSI and International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is known only in the UE and in the MME. See 3GPP TS23.003 Section 2.1 and TS23.401 Section

Machine-to-Machine. Technology enabling communication between machinesfor applications such as smart meters, mobile health solutions, etc.

Message Authentication Code for Integrity. A field added by the Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) layer to each RRC message, for the purpose of integrity protection. This code is calculated based on the Access Stratum (AS) keys, the message itself, the radio bearer ID, the direction (i.e. uplink or downlink) and the COUNT value. See 3GPP TS36.323 Sections 5.7 and 6.3.4.
Malicious software designed to infiltrate or damage a computer system without the owner's consent.
Man-in-the-middle attack
An attack in which an outsider is able to read, insert and modify messages between two parties without either of them knowing.
Buying and selling goods and services using a mobile device connected to the internet.

Mobile Financial Services. Banking services such as money transfer and payment, available via a mobile device.

Microprocessor (smart) card
A smart card comprising a module embedded with a chip, a computer with its own processor, memory, operating system and application software.
MicroSD Card
A removable memory card that can also be modified by adding a microprocessor to become a Secure Element, using the SDIO protocol to communicate with the device.

Machine Identification Module. The equivalent of a SIM with specific features such that it can be used in machines to enable authentificationMMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) a standard way of sending messages that include multimedia content (e.g. photographs) to and from mobile phones.

A standard way of sending messages that include multimedia content (e.g. photographs) to and from mobile phones.
Mobile Network Code. In conjunction with the Mobile Country Code (MCC), the MNC uniquely identifies a mobile network operator/carrier. In LTE it is used in the construction of network entity related identities such as the E- UTRAN Cell Global Identifier (ECGI), the Global eNodeB Identifier, and the Tracking Area Identity (TAI). See 3GPP TS23.003 Section 2.2 and TS36.300 Section 8.2.

Mobile Network Operator. A company that provides services for Mobile devices subscribers.

Mobile Money
Banking and payment services for unbanked users.
The unit formed of a chip and a contact plate.
Using a mobile handset to pay for goods and services
Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number. The telephone number of a mobile user. The MSISDN is included in the Evolved Packet System (EPS) Bearer Context. See 3GPP TS 23.003 Section 3.3.
Maximum Transfer Unit. The largest block of Internet Protocol (IP) data which may be transferred using a data link connection.
Network Domain Security. A security architecture for network domain Internet Protocol (IP) based control planes, which is applied to NDS/IP-networks (i.e. 3GPP and fixed broadband networks) to provide security in the Core Network (CN). See 3GPP TS33.210.

Near field communication (NFC)


Near-Field Communication. A wireless technology that enables communication over short distances (e.g. 4cm), typically between a mobile device and a reader.

NAS Node Selection Function. This functionality is located in the eNodeB to determine and establish an association between a given UE and one of the Mobility Management Entity (MME) nodes that comprise the pool area to which the eNodeB belongs. It enables proper routing via the S1-MME interface. See 3GPP TS36.410 Section 5.7.2.
Network Resource Identifier. A parameter used to identify the Core Network (CN) node assigned to serve a mobile station. See 3GPP TS23. 236 Section 4.3.

The Initiative for Open Authentication. An industry coalition comprising Gemalto, Citrix, IBM, Verisign and others, that is creating open standards for strong authentication.


Open Mobile Alliance. A body that develops open standards for the mobile phone industry.

Open Mobile Alliance – Client Provisioning. Standardized protocol to configure basic settings on a mobile phone, using SMS bearer.
Open Mobile Alliance – Device Management. Standardized protocol to configure advanced services on mobile phones, using IP bearer.

Operating System. Software that runs on computers and other smart devices and that manages the way they function.


Over The Air. A method of distributing applications and new software updates which are already in use.


One Time Password. A password that is valid for only one login session or transaction.

Primary Multicast Control CHannel (MCCH). A downlink channel which is used to transmit control information related to the reception of Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Services (MBMS). It may be able to point to optional additional Secondary-MCCH(s). The details will be finalized in a later release of LTE. See 3GPP TS 36.300, Section 15.3.5.
Packet Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI). A P-TMSI identifies a UE within a given Routing Area (RA) on a temporary basis and is used by the network to page the specified UE. See 3GPP TS23.003 Sections 2.7 and 2.8.2.
Password cracking
The process of recovering secret passwords from data in a computer system.

Personal Digital Assistant. A mobile device that functions as a personal information manager, often with the ability to connect to the internet.

PDC Personal Digital Cellular
A2G mobile phone standard used in Japan and South Korea.
Packet Data Network. The network through which a UE obtains a packet data connection to the internet. See 3GPP TS29.274.
Sending fraudulent emails requesting someone’s personal and financial details.

Personal Identification Number. A secret code required to confirm a user's identity.


Public Key Infrastructure. The software and/or hardware components necessary to enable the effective use of public key encryption technology. Public Key is a systel that uses two different keys (public and private) for encrypting and signing data.

Public Land Mobile Network. Typically the mobile network run by one net- work operator in one country. See 3GPP TS23.002 Section 3.1.
Packet Loss Rate. The ratio between the number of packets which have not been correctly received and the total number of transmitted packets.
Point-to-Point Protocol. A data link protocol used to establish a direct connection between two networking nodes. It can provide connection authentication, as well as offering transmission encryption and compression. See IETF RFC1661 and RFC2153,
Packet Switched. In PS communication each data packet is labelled with the destination address and routed over a shared transmission resource. In contrast with Circuit Switching (CS) where dedicated transmission resources are re- served between network nodes to deliver a reliable transmission rate and delay, in a PS connection the transmission rate and delay may vary depending on the traffic load and the medium capacity, with packets being buffered if necessary.
Quality of Service. A descriptor of the level of performance provided in trans- mission of data. Typical QoS metrics include bit rate, delay, bit/block error rate, maximum blocking probability and outage probability. QoS guarantees are especially important for real-time streaming applications, such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), since these are often delay-sensitive.
Radio Access Bearer. A service provided by the Access Stratum (AS) to the Non-Access Stratum (NAS) for the transfer of user data between the UE and the Core Network (CN).
Radio Admission Control. The RAC function is located in the eNodeB and controls admission or rejection of new radio bearer establishment requests. The goal of RAC is to maximize radio resource utilization while ensuring that the required Quality of Service (QoS) is achieved for sessions which are already established. RAC can take into account the overall resource situation in E- UTRAN, the QoS requirements, the priority levels, the provided QoS of in- progress sessions and the QoS requirements of new radio bearer requests. See 3GPP TS36.300, Section 16.1.2.
Radio Access Network. A RAN consists of the ground-based infrastructure required for delivery of communication between UEs and the Core Network (CN). In LTE, the RAN consists of one or more base stations (i.e. eNodeBs). Examples of other RANs are UMTS, TD-SCDMA, GSM, CDMA2000 and WiMAX.
Radio Access Technology. The RAT is the type of radio technology used in a Radio Access Network (RAN) to access the Core Network (CN), e.g. UMTS, GSM, CDMA2000, WiMAX.
Radio Frequency. Refers to signal oscillation frequencies such that if the signal is input to an antenna an electromagnetic field is generated suitable for wireless communication. These frequencies cover a significant part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum, ranging from a few kilohertz to hundreds of gigahertz. See 3GPP TR36.942 for some discussion of related issues.
Short to mid-range wireless communication technology typically used for low end services with no security needs (Tags).
Radio Link Control. The RLC layer is located between the Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) layer and the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer in the LTE user plane protocol stack. The main functions of the RLC layer are segmentation and reassembly of upper layer packets in order to adapt them to the size which can actually be transmitted over the radio interface. For radio bearers which need error-free transmission, the RLC layer also performs retransmission to recover from packet losses. Additionally, the RLC layer performs reordering to compensate for out-of-order reception due to Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) operation in the MAC layer. There is one RLC entity per radio bearer. See 3GPP TS36.322.

Public Key Infrastructure. Xan identity module for standards other than GSM.

System Architecture Evolution - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity. The S-TMSI is a unique identifier assigned to the UE by the Mobility Management Entity (MME) in order to identify the UE context while supporting subscriber identity confidentiality. See 3GPP TS23.003 Section 2.9.
Software Component Management Object. It is an Open Mobile Alliance specification that allows a management authority to perform software management on a remote device, including installation, uninstallation, activation and deactivation of software components.

Secure Element. A secure and personalised physical component added to a system to manage users rights and to host secure apps. SE typically consist of a Silicon Chip, a secure Operating System, application software and a secure protocol to communicate to the device. SE can be a removable device (such as UICC or µSD for mobile devices or MIM for M2M connected machines). SE can also be components inside the system.


A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM) is an integrated circuit chip that is intended to securely store the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number and its related key, which are used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices.


Smartjac GT (SMAGT) series of UICC / SIM cards ranging from standard 3G cards with USIM, ISIM & Milenage support, to advanced multi-application LTE UICC cards with Milenage support, with ready to use test NFC-applications, USIM, ISIM and CSIM.


Smartjac OT series of UICC / SIM cards ranging from 2G SIM cards with XOR support, to advanced multi-application LTE UICC cards with Milenage support, NFC, USIM, ISIM and CSIM.


Short Message Service. A GSM service that sends and receives text messages to and from a mobile phone.

Strong authentication
It refers to any authentication protocol that requires multiple factors to establish identity and privileges.This contrasts with traditional password authentication which requires only one authentication factor such as knowledge of a password.Common implementations of strong authentication use 'something you know' (a password) as one of the factors, and ‘something you have' (a physical device) and/or 'something you are' (a biometric such as a fingerprint) as the other factors.
Transmission Control Protocol. TCP is a reliable host-to-host protocol used in packet-switched communication networks together with the Internet Protocol (IP). While IP handles the actual transmission of the packets, TCP takes care of the control of the packets, requesting retransmission of lost ones and rear-ranging out-of-order packets. It also helps minimize network congestion. See IETF RFC4614,

Trusted Execution Environment. A software and hardware dedicated environment embedded within the core device microprocessor to host and execute secure applications. TEE consists of dedicated logic (hardware) within the device microprocessor with its own secure Operating System (software) and secure API to communicate with the Device rich-Operating system. TEE acts like a vault within the microprocessor to ensure a secure provisioning and execution of security sensitive appliactions such as payment. A TSM service is used to install software applications within the TEE environment, as well as performin activation:de-activation of services.

Thin client
A computer (client) that depends primarily on a central server for processing activities. By contrast, a fat client does as much local processing as possible.
A program that contains or installs a malicious program.

Trusted Services Manager. A third party enabling Mobile Operators, Mass Transit Operators, Banks and businesses to offer combined services seamlessly and securely.

User Datagram Protocol. A transport layer protocol used along with the Internet Protocol (IP). UDP is not designed to support reliable transfer, and therefore packets may arrive out of order, be duplicated, or be lost without notice. UDP assumes that error checking and correction is either not necessary or performed in the application. UDP does not use handshaking between sending and receiving transport-layer entities prior to sending a packet and is therefore said to be connectionless. The simplicity of UDP keeps the overhead from using the protocol low. Common applications that use UDP include time-sensitive applications (where loss of packets is preferable to delayed packets) and broad- casting (where feedback is not supported). See IETF RFC768,
User Equipment. The mobile unit which allows a user to access network services, connecting to the UTRAN or E-UTRAN via the radio interface. A UE can be subdivided into a Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) and a Mo- bile Equipment (ME). See 3GPP TS21.905 Section 3.
A new ciphering algorithm to be deployed in UMTS Release 7 as an insurance policy against the original UMTS Kasumi based ciphering scheme being cracked in the future. See ETSI TC SAGE Specification ‘Specification of the 3GPP Confidentiality and Integrity Algorithms UEA2 and UIA2, Document 1, UEA2 and UIA2 specifications’, available from and subject to licensing conditions.

A high capacity smart card used in mobile terminals for GSM, UMTS/3G and now 4G/LTE networks.


Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. One of the 3G mobile telecommunications technologies which is also being developed into a 4G technology.


Universal Serial Bus. A standard input/output bus that supports very high transmission rates.


Universal Subscriber Identity Module. A SIM with adbanced software that ensures continuity when migrating to 3G services.

Universal Terrestrial Radio Access. The radio access solution for UMTS.
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network. UTRAN consists of Radio Network Controllers (RNCs) and NodeBs of a UMTS network. It allows connectivity between the UE and the core network.
Voice over Internet Protocol. The transmission of packetized voice communications using IP. VoIP is a thus a packet-switched technology.

Virtual Private Network. A private network often used within a company or group of companies to communicate confidentially over a public network.


Wideband Code Division Multiple Access. A 3G technology for wireless systems based on CDMA technology.

X Message Authentication Code. An X-MAC is calculated by the receiver of a Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) Protocol Data Unit (PDU) during the process of integrity verification for Signalling Radio Bearers (SRBs). If the calculated X-MAC value corresponds to the Message Authentication Code for Integrity (MAC-I), integrity protection has been verified successfully. See 3GPP TS36.323 Section 5.7.

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