In the future, mobile devices will contain some type of embedded Secure Element — a smart card or other chip that can be used as a second out-of-band channel of authentication. With this approach, either OTP or PKI-based identity credential authentication can be used to secure remote access and prove identities.
The keys to making this effective are a proven secure component technology and trusted architecture that will isolate the Secure Element and its authentication process from the mobile device itself. There are several possible technologies, including SIMs and MicroSDs for example, but it will be several years before these standards solidify and become mainstream. The chart summarizes the main characteristics of different Secured Element options.